Aminoglycosides warnings, precautions, side effects. In this forum, i will summarize the renal handling of the aminoglycosides, the pathogenetic mechanisms of nephro toxicity, and the clinical aspects of aminoglycoside induced acute renal failure. Aminoglycosides antimicrobial resistance learning site. The main concerns with the use of aminoglycoside antibiotics are nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity. Patients with decompensated liver disease aminoglycosides are associated with an increased risk of renal failure. Aminoglycoside dosing for pediatrics university health system. R116 it is not available for parenteral administration. If actual body weight is % of ideal, use adjusted body weight.
We thank dr pulido et al for their valuable comments concerning aminoglycoside toxicity. Protection against ototoxicity may be achieved by reducing the availability of iron using chelators, such as deferoxamine and dihydroxybenzoate. Aminoglycosides can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman see warnings section. Review therapy and consider amending or withholding nephrotoxic drugs during gentamicin treatment. Vancomycin and aminoglycoside dosing and monitoring per pharmacy. Aminoglycoside antibiotics an overview sciencedirect topics. Aminoglycoside dosing in adults department of health 4 1. Their primary site of action is the 30s subunit of the prokaryotic ribosome, interrupting bacterial protein synthesis. Gentamicin clinical guidelines for dosing and monitoring. If an aminoglycoside is used during pregnancy or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking an aminoglycoside, she should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus.
Aminoglycoside antibiotics an overview sciencedirect. General comments aminoglycosides ag include gentamicin, tobramycin, amikacin and streptomycin ag exert bactericidal activity against gram negative bacteria. Stanford health care aminoglycoside dosing guideline. The department of pharmacy and pharmaceutical services now offers a dosing and monitoring service for patients receiving iv vancomycin and aminoglycoside therapy. Intravitreal aminoglycoside toxicity revisitedreply. Contraindications 2 previous hypersensitivity reaction to an aminoglycoside. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publishers prior permission. Aminoglycosides should be used with caution in patients with preexisting auditory, vestibular or renal impairment, patients that have a family history of aminoglycoside induced auditory toxicity or a maternal relative with deafness due to mitochondrial mutation a1555g or, in patients of advanced age 80 years or over. Clinically, gentamicin sulfate is used to treat severe systemic infections due to sensitive gramnegative and other organisms. Although definitive evidence is still lacking, animal and human studies strongly suggest that pulse dosing is less nephrotoxic. Thus far, peak gentamicin concentrations of 3 to 5 mcgml seem adequate for adjunctive therapy when using. Some of these drugs are more likely to cause hearing loss.
Statement aminoglycosides are highly effective agents for the treatment of gramnegative infections. Aminoglycoside antibiotics are water soluble, eliminated primarily by the kidney 100% of the dose is normally excreted unchanged in the urine, have negligible protein binding, have a small volume of distribution 0. The initial renal manifestation of aminoglycoside toxicity is enzymuria. Dec 27, 2019 aminoglycosides preferentially affect the proximal tubular cells. With aminoglycosides, there is evidence of risk to the fetus eg, auditory toxicity, but clinical benefits may outweigh risk. Pfizer inc believes that the information contained in this material safety data sheet is accurate, and while it is provided in good faith, it is without a warranty of any kind, expressed or implied. It is well known that they can cause dose related renal toxicity and ototoxicity, which occur in almost everyone who receives a sufficiently toxic dose. Pdf aminoglycosideinduced nephrotoxicity researchgate. Aminoglycosides are freely filtered across the glomerulus.
Aminoglycoside dosing and monitoring recommendations. Open access guide to audiology and hearing aids for otolaryngologists tuberculosis tb, aminoglycoside and hivrelated hearing loss tashneem harris, barbara heinze this chapter discusses hearing loss related to tuberculosis tb, hiv, and aminoglycosides. Guidelines for extended interval gentamicintobramycin dosing. Cellular toxicity is a common characteristic of aminoglycosides except for spectinomycin due to. Aminoglycosides are amongst the most important compounds used to treat serious nosocomial infections caused by aerobic, gramnegative bacteria 1, 2. If an aminoglycoside will be part of ongoing therapy, a steadystate peak and trough should be documented to support definitive dosing b. We conclude that furosemide use should not be considered a major risk factor for the development of aminoglycoside induced nephrotoxicity or auditory toxicity. Aminoglycoside dosing and monitoring guidelines for adult. Aminoglycosideinduced nephrotoxicity in children springerlink. Weare aware ofone case inwhicha largedoseofcefazolinwas inadvertentlyinjectedintoa gasfilled eye and washed out within 5 to 10 minutes. Daily versus thriceweekly dosing for treatment of mycobacterial diseases charles a. Guidelines for extended interval gentamicintobramycin.
Aminoglycosides antimicrobial resistance learning site for. Of these, gentamicin, tobramycin, and amikacin are the most frequently prescribed by intramuscular or intravenous injection for systemic treatment. Jun 19, 2019 see pathogenesis and prevention of aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity. Patients with severe renal disease crcl toxicity, but approximately 510% of noncf adult patients receiving an aminoglycoside have a significant increase in serum creatinine. When this is not possible, the dose of aminoglycoside should be corrected increase in the interval between doses. The majority of aminoglycoside recommendations in the therapeutic guidelines are for short course empirical therapy with gentamicin. Previous vestibular or auditory toxicity due to an aminoglycoside precautions. Oct 20, 2007 aminoglycoside antibiotics are widely used for the treatment of gram negative sepsis. A read is counted each time someone views a publication summary such as the title, abstract, and list of authors, clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the fulltext. Manifestations of and risk factors for aminoglycoside. The more toxic antibiotics in this class have been restricted to topical or oral use for the treatment of infections caused by enterobacteriaceae. To maximise efficacy and safety, extended duration once daily or less frequent dosing is now the recommended method for dosing aminoglycosides in most clinical settings.
Toourknowledge, therehasneverbeenareportedcase ofvascularnonperfusion occurringafter inadvertent injectionofan antibiotic other thanan aminoglycoside. Pdf aminoglycosides remain dependable antibactericidal agents for severe gramnegative infection. Previous vestibular or auditory toxicity due to an aminoglycoside precautions unless there is no appropriate safer alternative and in the absence of streptococcal or enterococcal endocarditis, aminoglycosides should be avoided if treatment extends more than 48 hours. For patients treate d a with gentamicin sulfate an d other s should be close clinica l observation. For most patients, gentamicin should be ceased within 48 hours of initiation.
Aminoglycoside toxicity and relation to dose regimen. The addition of additional agents may lead to increased toxicity from adverse drug. Full text get a printable copy pdf file of the complete article 698k, or click on a page image below to browse page by page. The overall incidence is estimated at approximately 7. Due to its toxicity, aminoglycoside use has been clinically limited to severe infections. Guidelines for extended interval gentamicin tobramycin dosingmonitoring in adult patients legacy health system 2002 1. The food and drug administration fda has issued blackbox warnings. Gentamicin sulfate, a watersoluble antibiotic of theaminoglycosidegroup,isderivedbythegrowth of micromonospora purpurea, an actinomycete. The second agent should be an aminoglycoside in most cases. Acute tubular necrosis due to ischemia or other insults and the pathogenesis and potential therapy of aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity are discussed separately. Medical treatment can reverse the damage to the kidneys in some people, but benefits are less achievable with ototoxicity. A single dose of aminoglycoside results in significantly lower renal cortical tissue concentration compared to the same total dose administered through a continuous infusion or in divided doses. Aminoglycoside induced ototoxicity can profoundly affect quality of life aminoglycosides cause toxicity of the vestibular balance or cochlear hearing systems of the inner ear in up to 10% of patients receiving these drugs intravenously. To maximise efficacy and safety, extended duration once daily or less.
They contain an inositol moiety substituted with two amino or guanidino groups and with one or more sugars or aminosugars. Extendedinterval aminoglycoside administration for. Aminoglycoside antibiotics definition of aminoglycoside. Aminoglycoside toxicity free download as powerpoint presentation. Aminoglycoside definition of aminoglycoside by medical. The less toxic aminoglycosedes are used for parenteral treatment of severe sepsis caused by gram negative. Pdf aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity revisited researchgate. These agents are freely filtered by the glomeruli and quickly taken up by the proximal tubular epithelial cells, where they are incorporated into lysosomes after first interacting with phospholipids on the brush border membranes. Despite reaching these tissues rapidly after being introduced into the bloodstream, they can. Increases in the urinary excretion of various lysosomal enzymes also can be seen. Nb provincial health authorities antiinfective stewardship committee. In this paper, incidence, predisposition, mechanism, and prevention of aminoglycoside induced ototoxicity is discussed in the light of literature data. Aminoglycosides are potent bactericidal antibiotics that act by creating fissures in the outer membrane of the bacterial cell. Aminoglycoside can cause inner ear toxicity which can result in sensorineural hearing loss.
Comparative toxicities associated with all 3 aminoglycosides, by dosing. Aminoglycosides can affect hearing, balance, or both 2, 12, 14, 71. Dailymed gentamicin gentamicin sulfate injection, solution. They are pseudopolysaccharides containing amino sugars and can therefore be considered polycationic species for the purpose of understanding their biological interactions. When infectious diseases has approved ongoing gentamicin therapy, advice. If it is clinically feasible and appropriate, monitor cochlear toxicity by audiometric function at baseline and during therapy. Antifree radical agents, such as salicylate, have been shown to attenuate the ototoxic effects of aminoglycosides. Gentamicin has been widely used in the treatment of gramnegative organisms and some grampositive organisms. The most common clinical application either alone or as part of combination therapy of the aminoglycosides is for the treatment of serious infections caused by aerobic gramnegative bacilli. The incidence of inner ear toxicity varies from 7 to 90%, depending on the types of antibiotics used, susceptibility of the patient to such antibiotics, and the duration of antibiotic administration.
They are particularly active against aerobic, gramnegative bacteria. Concurrent administration of neurotoxic and or nephrotoxic agents increases the risk of gentamicin toxicity. Metro south antimicrobial stewardship network gentamicin. Monitoring of aminoglycoside plasma concentrations is recommended in these patients and should commence on the first dose of directed therapy. June 2014 aminoglycoside dosing for pediatrics university health system necessary patient information for dosing body weight use actual body weight unless actual body weight is % of ibw.
The use of these potent antibacterial agents is limited by the risks of ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Methods search strategy we searched embase and pubmed from january 1966 to september 2003 using the following key words. Examples of these include gentamicin, tobramycin, kanamycin, neomycin, streptomycin, and amikacin 9. Check with your doctor or nurse immediately if any of the following side effects occur while taking gentamicin incidence not. Thus, thus, in kanamycin and gentamycin families, two amino sugars are attached to 2deoxy streptam ine. To maximise clinical outcomes and to minimise the potential for toxicity, a maximum of 48 hours of empirical therapy ie a maximum of 3 doses in patients with normal renal function at 0, 24 and 48 hours. If the patient has normal renal function, monitoring of gentamicin plasma concentrations is not required in this timeframe. Gentamicin sulfate injection is a solution containing gentamicin sulfate, a complex aminoglycoside antibiotic substance with three components, sulfates of gentamicin c1, gentamicin c2 and gentamicin c1a. Thus, careful selection of empiric dosing regimens and serum level monitoring are needed to ensure safety and efficacy of these drugs. These are significant causes of hearing loss pertinent to developing world.
As early as 24 hours after a single therapeutic dose of aminoglycoside, the urinary excretion of a variety of brushborder membrane enzymes increases and progressively rises as therapy continues 18. The workhorse of aminoglycosides, gentamicin, has been used for the treatment of serious gram. Druginduced hearing loss aminoglycosides tobi frymark hillary leech rob mullen tracy schooling rebecca venediktov beverly wang national center for evidencebased practice in communication disorders, american speechlanguagehearing association, rockville, md introduction. To learn about side effects and potential toxicity of aminoglycosides, lets visit jack, a patient in the hospital who is being treated with an aminoglycoside antibiotic. Gentamicin c injection, usp for with z z pedi tric im. Aminoglycoside toxicity action aminoglycoside antibiotics bactericidal against a wide variety of gramnegative bacteria narrowspectrum and certain grampositive organisms. Saturable aminoglycosides uptake in renal tubule cell and inner ear.
Thus far, peak gentamicin concentrations of 3 to 5 mcgml seem adequate for adjunctive therapy when using traditional dosing. The two most important classes of aminoglycoside antibiotics are the 4, 5 and 4, 6disubstituted 2dos derivatives. Aminoglycosides are very powerful antibiotics, and their side effects can be severe especially when taken by mouth or iv. Side effects of aminoglycosides on the kidney, ear and.
Aminoglycosideinduced ototoxicity can profoundly affect quality of life. Otoprotective approaches to preventing aminoglycoside toxicity aminoglycosides can react with iron to generate ros. Patients with risk factors for toxicity should have therapeutic drug monitoring tdm. These drugs may induce apoptosis programmed cell death, resulting in permanent damage to and oxidative stress on the system 60. Aminoglycosides cause toxicity of the vestibular balance or cochlear hearing systems of the inner ear in up to 10% of patients receiving these drugs intravenously. Mar 31, 2020 the risk is also higher if a patient has previously taken aminoglycoside drugs. In the event of overdosage or toxic reactions, hemodialysis may aid in the removal of gentamicin from the blood, especially if renal function is. However, their use is associated with significant toxicities including vestibular, auditory and renal toxicity. Treatment of nephrotoxicity caused by aminoglycoside is basically support, consisting on cessation of the use of the drug if possible substituting it for another nonnephrotoxic antibiotic. Frequently permanent, toxicity can result in failure to return to work and diminished quality of life. If an aminoglycoside is to be used, the clinician should recognize that extending aminoglycoside therapy beyond five days may place the patient at risk of aminoglycoside toxicity. Aminoglycoside use is limited by ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Antimicrobial fundamental concepts pharmacodynamics and therapeutic drug monitoring. This service is available 24 hours per day, 7 days.
How often should aminoglycoside concentrations be obtained. Aminoglycoside antibiotics have limited tissue distribution, are dependent on renal elimination, and have a narrow therapeutic index. We also agree that their evaluation of the data of zachary. The most reliable way to prevent gentamicin toxicity is to minimise its use. This leads to a dramatic reduction of aminoglycoside ototoxicity. Aminoglycoside toxicity renal function antibiotics. Aminoglycoside toxicity, therefore, is a significant side effect to the aminoglycoside drugs. We agree with their premise that, like most biologic phenomena, drug toxicity has a certain amount of variability among individuals.
Aminoglycoside antibiotics all members of the aminoglycoside antibiotic family are well known for their potential to cause permanent ototoxicity if they enter the inner ear. Along with its needed effects, gentamicin may cause some unwanted effects. Ototoxicity is, quite simply, ear poisoning oto ear, toxicity poisoning, which results from exposure to drugs or chemicals that damage the inner ear or the vestibulocochlear nerve the nerve sending balance and hearing information from the inner ear to the brain. Get a printable copy pdf file of the complete article 1. Despite monitoring and maintaining gentamicin levels within an accepted range when drug monitoring is indicated, it is possible, although uncommon, for toxicity to occur. A case report on amikacin induced vestibular ototoxicity. Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic used in the treatment of severe infections often in combination with other antibiotics including endocarditis also in combination with other antibiotics. Capitals indicate lifethreatening, underlines indicate most frequent. Contraindications and precautions history of hypersensitivity or toxic reaction with aminoglycoside. These guidelines have been developed by the queensland health statewide aminoglycoside working party to assist clinicians to safely manage aminoglycoside therapy. Intravenously delivered aminoglycoside antibiotics, tobramycin and.
R5 as with other aminoglycosides, use is limited by risk of toxicity. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention. Aminoglycoside classes and target sites natural aminoglycoside antibiotics share a nonsugar 2deoxystreptamine 2dos scaffold connected to amino sugar substituents at the 4, 5 and 6positions fig. Jan 06, 2015 aminoglycoside induced ototoxicity can profoundly affect quality of life. Concentrations should be obtained if renal function changes better or worse or if there is suspicion of aminoglycoside toxicity. The cell and molecular mechanisms of aminoglycoside ototoxicity, as well as tissue specificity, is still. Pdf aminoglycosides are among the oldest antibiotics available to treat serious infections caused by primarily, gramnegative bacteria.543 1081 740 1225 1215 1457 1428 1418 100 715 1021 991 494 743 261 381 1339 1133 328 1388 278 627 1124 1018 1346 547 680 341 1140 1521 985 605 873 1366 430 496 720 204 454